In each developed country in the world, the main title documents, which shows all the state laws that have legal force, regulating the political, economic and legal system of the state is the Constitution.
The main difference of Bulgarian legal system – transparency and accessibility. Before signing, the law is manifesting in the state newspaper “The State Gazette “. The newspaper publishing innovations, additional information on the laws; Ministries edicts; information regarding the opening of firms and changes in the authorized capital; proceedings in legal cases, etc. As soon as the laws came into force, they can be found in the city libraries, government organizations and companies. In addition, the information base can be removed from the Internet resources, specially designed sites.
For the first time, the content of the legal part of the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria, was published in the “State Gazette” in 1991. To your review there is a brief summary legislative framework of Bulgaria below:
- «The law on the Bulgarian citizenship»;
- «Aliens Act»;
- «The Law on Local Taxes and Fees shall»;
- «The law on the right of ownership»;
- «Foreign Investment Law».
«The law on the Bulgarian citizenship» According to the content of the law, published 31/05/2002, you can become a resident of the State in certain cases: at the time of submission of the application the applicant must be the age 18; a permanent residence permit in the country has been issued not less than 5 years ago; the applicant has no criminal record on the part of the Bulgarian state, it is not on the wanted list and not under investigation; is employed and is able to fend for oneself; speaks the state language and does not have citizenship of another state (full description in Art. 12 of the Law).
Also, applicants for obtaining Bulgarian citizenship may be persons who are married to a resident of the country, were not suspected of fictitious union; born on the territory of the State; as well as persons who in the period to adulthood were entitled to a permanent presence in the country (full description in Art. 13 of the Act).
Applicants who do not meet the requirements of Articles 12 and 13 of the law on citizenship, can it get for their outstanding achievements in the economic sphere; thanks to social activities; to be discoverers in the field of technology and science; be a cultural worker and have achievements in sports (for a complete description of Art. 14 of the Act).
«Aliens Act» Contents of the law, published 08/10/2004., about finding in the State implies that an alien may remain lawfully in the country for short and long term. Short-term – are allowed to stay on the territory of Bulgaria for a period of up to three months; long-term – up to one year or with no stated maturity (on a permanent basis).
According to the text of the law, persons who provided permits to engage labor activity in the country have the right to a long presence on the territory of the State; entrepreneurs operating in Bulgaria and have provided working places at least 10 Bulgarians; working under an international treaty on cooperation; students coming to study; patients referred for treatment at local medical facilities.
Also, applicants for a long-term presence in the country may be the persons who have entered into marriage with a resident of a country or a foreigner staying in the country on a permanent basis; financially independent parents of foreigners living in Bulgaria; family of a foreign citizen who already has the ability constantly presence in the country; representatives of foreign companies who have registered at the Chamber of Commerce and accredited representatives of foreign media.
In the article 25 of the “Law on Aliens” in addition to article 24 indicate that the foreign individuals who made invest in the economy more than 250 000 euro shall be entitled to a long stay in the country.
All foreign persons, who are in age group over 14 years, which is allowed to reside in Bulgaria for more than 3 months, receive an identification document that acts as an international passport.
«The Law on Local Taxes and Fees shall» Any activity of physical persons – entrepreneurs in Bulgaria is taxed. The tax rate – 20% (VAT). The exception is the tourism industry – 7%. Companies that do not own the patent tax pay 10% income tax. Private entrepreneurs at the end of the tax period pay the annual tax. Movable and immovable property in Bulgaria also subject under Article of tax payment. The owners of the property register it with the tax authorities in the two month period after purchase or completion of construction. If the purchased housing is acquired permanent residence, the tax rate is reduced by 50%. All inhabitants of Bulgaria pay fee for household waste, the rate is set by the local municipality.
The process of purchase – sale of farm buildings and land are not subject to VAT.
«The law on the right of ownership» According to the description of the Heads of the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria, foreign citizens, legal persons who residing or registered in the country, lawfully, with the same rights as the citizens of the country manage the purchased property, to dispose of it at their discretion. The right of ownership does not apply to the land, the exception applies only to the inherited land. Inherited land after three years of ownership must be necessarily transferred into the possession of the local residents.
The law states that all foreign persons including legal, may legitimately be owners of buildings; have a limited right to immovable property, except in cases that are not within under the description of the law.
«Foreign Investment Law», «Investment Promotion Act» since 2004. According to the text of article number 97 of the law, promulgated 24/10/1997, a non-resident may become the investor of the country; company or legal entity registered outside Bulgaria. These categories of foreign persons can make investments in the economic development of the state sector on an equal footing with the Bulgarians (full description in Article 2 and Article 5 of the Law).
Permitted sectors for capital investment – movable and immovable property; stocks; securities and bonds issued by the state, legal organizations and communities. The investor has the right to own certain percentage of shares of the company or be a major shareholder (full description in Article 12 of the Law).
Foreign persons who invested in real estate, own it with the same rights as the citizens of the country. If the investment is greater than EUR 500 000, granted the right to permanent residence in the territory of the state. The law establishes restrictions on the ownership of land. The exception is valid only for foreigners who received the land as an inheritance.
In given article was published a summary of the individual cases that fall under the description of the laws of the state of Bulgaria. The literal content of the legal framework is available on the official websites of the Republic of Bulgaria.