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Terms

Joint Stock Company JSC ( it Aktiengesellschaft, IPA:'Aktsi angazeljaft, AG abbreviation - one of the varieties of economic societies. Joint-stock company is a commercial organization whose charter capital is divided into a certain number of shares certifying the liability rights of company participants (shareholders) in relation to society.

Active - part of the balance sheet (left side) of the aggregate value of the property and organization on a certain date. The totality of property rights: wealth, money, etc., belonging to the legal person..

Shareholder - It is a natural, legal person (including a corporation), a foreign organization (including not having legal personality, but having legal capacity under the laws of a foreign country), the municipality that owns one or more shares in the capital of the company.

The action (it Aktie, from lat al tio -.. Action, the claim) - an emissive security that fixes the right of its owner (shareholder) to receive part of the profit of the company in the form of dividends, to participate in the management of the company and on the part of the property remaining after its liquidation.

Bearer share - Called a security (share), which recognizes an anonymous holder is legally a full shareholder in the company with all the relevant rights (Finance Dictionary). This paper, in contrast to the nominal share, does not contain any indication of the name and surname of the owner. The rights certified by bearer share, in fact belong to the bearer of this paper. The certificate holder bearer shares is considered to be the owner of the shares, certified certificate.

Apostille (French Apostille.) - A special mark stamped on the official documents of non-commercial nature, emanating from institutions and organizations of the participating countries of the Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents.

The beneficiary (as the beneficiary, from the French bene fice - Profit use) - a natural or legal person who is a cash payment, the recipient of the money. Beneficiary is also the person in whose favor the issuing bank opens a documentary credit.

General Power of Attorney - A colloquial name of a power of attorney that is issued, if necessary, delegate authority to perform acts, covering the entire scope of the legal entity or the overall management of the property of an individual (eg, a car) with virtually no restrictions.

Stamp Duty - A tax levied on the acquisition of real estate and land, as well as the purchase of shares, bonds and other investment instruments.

Privacy Policy - The need to prevent leakage (disclosure) any information. In the Anglo-American tradition, there are two main types of confidentiality: voluntary (privacy) and forced (secrecy). In the first case refers to the prerogative of the individual, in the second case refers to information for official use, available a limited number of official persons of the company, corporation, public body, public or political organization. Although privacy and secrecy are similar in meaning, in practice, they tend to contradict each other: gain of secrecy leads to a violation of privacy and reduce. In the totalitarian and authoritarian states under confidentiality usually it refers only secrecy.

LLC Type Company - Corresponds to the concept of "Limited Liability Companies" (in abbreviated form - LLC) in the Russian language. Limited Liability Company - founded by one or more legal entities and / or individuals a business entity whose charter capital is divided into shares; Members of the Company is not liable for its obligations and bear the risk of losses associated with the activities of society, within the value of their shares in the authorized capital of the company .

Corporate governance - a system of interaction between shareholders and management of the company (joint-stock company, corporation), including its Board of Directors, as well as with other stakeholders, through which sold the rights of shareholders; complex mechanisms to the shareholders (investors) to control the activities of managers and solve problems with other interest groups.

Legalization - Validation of official recognition, often with a touch of decriminalization. Legalization of a document - the commission of acts that give the document legal force. Legalizing income (money laundering), - transfer them from the informal economy into the formal economy.

Tax planning  - It is active steps to reduce the taxpayer's tax payments. The basic concepts of tax planning is tax optimization and minimization of taxes. Tax planning (NP) is one of the most important components of financial planning units (financial management) organization. The essence of the NP lies in the fact that every taxpayer has a right to use the permissible means of law, methods and ways to minimize their tax liabilities. NP can be defined as the planning of financial - economic activity of the organization in order to minimize tax payments. It can be individually directed and wear targeted and applied in the financial - economic activity of a wide range of businesses.

Non-resident - Legal, physical person acting in one State, but always incorporated and resident in another. Also, it may be companies and organizations that are not legal entities established under the laws of foreign countries, or in the country for foreign diplomatic and other official representations and international organizations, their branches and representative offices.

Common law - A unified system of precedents, the total for the whole of the UK, one of the components of the Anglo-Saxon legal system. It happened in the XIII-XIV centuries on the basis of local customs and practices of the royal courts. The main source of law in the common law recognizes the legal precedent (the Anglo-Saxon legal family). The common law is referred to as a system of laws, and the type of legal system developed on the basis of judgments and judicial authorities, and not by means of laws or legislative decrees executive.

Disclaimer - one of the principles underlying the concept of a legal entity, which consists in the fact that a legal entity, although being an abstraction, in fact has a number of features of a real person (ie, human), in particular, it can itself be eligible and obligations, thus limiting the rights and duties (including liability) persons who are members of such legal entity.

Offshore zone - the state or its part, within which to non-resident companies is determined by a special registration mode and activity. In some countries also used the term "tax haven" (anglDah heaven).